Environment Banner Environment
Default text size Large text size Extra large text size High contrast text

Home : Environment : Air Pollution Control : Smoky fuel ban

The ban on the marketing, sale and distribution of bituminous fuel (or ‘smoky coal ban’ as it was previously called) was first introduced in Dublin in 1990 in response to severe episodes of winter smog that resulted from the widespread use of smoky coal for residential heating. The ban proved effective in reducing smoke and sulphur dioxide levels and was subsequently extended to other areas. The ban now applies in twenty cities and towns. Air quality monitoring by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has shown levels of particulate matter (PM10) are lower in these areas than in towns where the ban does not apply. PM10s are extremely small particles that can become deeply lodged in lungs, causing severe health consequences.

Research indicated that the ban in Dublin resulted in over 350 fewer annual deaths. An estimate of these benefits in monetary terms put the value at over 20 million euro. Additional benefits of the regulations have also been identified through the stimulation for householders to switch from using solid fuels, which generally are less efficient and more polluting, to more efficient and less polluting gas and oil. The associated reduced fuel costs to consumers were estimated at 184 million euro per year.

Following the improvement of air quality in Dublin, the ban was rolled out to other cities and large towns as follows:

  • Cork City since 1995 
  • Arklow, Drogheda, Dundalk, Limerick City and Wexford Town since 1998 
  • Celbridge, Galway City, Leixlip, Naas and Waterford City since 2000 
  • Bray, Kilkenny, Sligo and Tralee since 2003
  • Athlone, Carlow, Clonmel and Ennis since 2011.


Review and Public Consultation of the Smoky Coal Ban Regulations

On 12 April 2012, Minister Hogan announced a public consultation to inform and assist a review of the ‘smoky coal ban’ regulations. The purpose of the review was to ensure that the regulations remain fit for purpose in safeguarding air quality by limiting harmful emissions of air pollutants arising from the use of residential fuels. The consultation paper reviewed the regulations to date and identified relevant considerations relating to their effective implementation in the context of developments over the two decades since the ban was first introduced in Dublin.

Following the review of submissions received under the consultation process, several proposed enhancements and new initiatives were identified to improve the effectiveness of the existing legislation so as to consolidate air quality benefits to date, and deliver further improvements across the country into the future.

  • Boundary modifications and extensions to most existing smoky coal ban specified areas, in line with Census 2011 data;
  • The extension of the ban to all of Dublin County, including suburbs and satellite towns;
  • The ban will be applied in six new provincial towns (with effect from 01 May 2013) because they have populations over 15,000 people - Greystones, Letterkenny, Mullingar, Navan, Newbridge and Portlaoise; Wicklow Town is also to be included following requests from members of the public, Wicklow County Council and local representatives;
  • A prohibition on the burning of bituminous or smoky coal is also being introduced to complement the existing ban on the marketing, sale and distribution.



An amendment in the Air Pollution Act (Marketing, sale, distribution and burning of specified fuels) Regulations 2015, has made some additional changes, which came into effect on June 1st 2015. Maynooth has been added to the specified area of Celbridge and Leixlip.

The maps for the Kildare towns affected are available by clicking here:



Ban on burning

A ban on the burning of smoky coal and other prohibited fuels now applies in all smoky coal ban specified areas to complement the ban on the marketing, sale and distribution. Previously, the ban was simply one on selling these fuels. So now, householders are also being asked to play their part and will no longer be allowed to buy smoky coal in other areas to burn in the towns affected.

There is a range of innovative low smoke solid fuel products, including low smoke coal products, available on the market. Low smoke solid fuel is cleaner as well as more carbon and heat-efficient so can deliver climate benefits as well as improved air quality and human health benefits.

Under the Regulations all low smoke solid fuel products must be clearly labeled as “APPROVED FUEL — Contents comply with the Air Pollution Act Regulations ”. This allows householders to make an informed choice concerning the products they purchase.


The Regulations continue to be enforced by local authority authorised persons. Authorised persons may undertake inspections of premises and vehicles being used for the sale and distribution of solid fuel as well as collect samples.

A local authority may bring a prosecution under section 11 of the Air Pollution Act 1987 for breaches of the Regulations. Under the Environment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2011 the maximum fine amounts for breaches of the Regulations have been increased to 5,000 euro on summary conviction. Fixed payment notices (or ‘on the spot fines’) were also introduced for alleged offences relating to the marketing, sale and distriybution of prohibited fuels in specified areas. Persons found to be marketing, selling or distributing prohibited fuels in breach of the Regulations are now liable for a fixed payment notice of 1,000 euro.

Local authorities submit reports of inspection activities to the EPA Office of Environmental Enforcement, which has an oversight role.

Complaints regarding the marketing, sale, and distribution of prohibited fuels or smoky emissions from the use of prohibited fuels in low smoke solid fuel ban specified areas should be reported to the environment section of the relevant local authority.