by ehistoryadmin on July 12, 2014

Peter Lunell (1652 – 1720) – An Irish Huguenot and His Family 

By James Robinson M. Phil.

The Protestant Reformation, started by Martin Luther in Germany in 1517, spread rapidly to France.  Followers of the new Protestantism were soon accused of heresy by the French Catholic Government and the established religion of France.  Despite persecution, the new church grew in numbers.  In 1555 the first Huguenot church was built in Paris, based on the teachings of John Calvin (1509 – 1564).  The name Huguenot is believed to be derived from St. Hugo, a Protestant saint from the time of the Reformation.  Twelve hundred Huguenots were slain at Vassey in 1562 and this started the French Wars of Religion, which lasted thirty five years and caused utter devastation in France.  On August 24 1572, the infamous Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre occurred, when an estimated twenty thousand Protestants were killed.  Henry IV signed the ‘Edict of Nantes’ in 1598, which ended the religious wars, and allowed Huguenots to practice their religion.  However, Louis XIV, in 1685, revoked the Edict and Protestant persecution began again.  More than 400,000 fled France in the following years, until the Edict of Toleration was issued by Louis XVI in 1787. This granted religious rights to Huguenots in France. 

During the second half of the 17th Century, at least 10,000 French refugees came to live in Ireland and had a major impact on Irish life.  Irish industries, agriculture and commerce, as well as the professions, politics, culture and the arts were all influenced by the new influx.  Even the word ‘refugee’ is believed to trace its origin to the Huguenot migration from France; the term evolving from the French word ‘Refugeer’, meaning to take refuge.  Huguenots were particularly skilled in a variety of crafts.  They included brewers, map-makers, glass-blowers, goldsmiths, horticulturalists, printers, silversmiths, tanners, watch-makers and weavers, to name but a few.  They were made up of significant numbers of soldiers; sea-farers; engineers; farmers; scientists; pastors; merchants; musicians and shopkeepers.  Some well-known Huguenots and their descendants in Ireland include: James Gandon and Richard Cassels, designers and architects; Gabriel Beranger and George Victor du Noyez, artists; the D’Olier and Le Bas families, goldsmiths and silversmiths; La Touche, of the banking family; the Crommelin and De La Chervis families, linen manufacturers; Sheridan Le Fanu; Maturin; Lardner, Boucicault and Beckett, all writers.  Particularly worthy of mention is William Dargan, engineer, who constructed Ireland’s railway line, oceanographer Matthew Fontaine Maury and Francis Beaufort, who is known worldwide for the Beaufort Windscale. 

This is the story of Peter Lunell (1652 – 1720), a Huguenot refugee and his family. 

The French spelling of the name is Lunel but the form Lunell appears to have been adopted by the middle of the 18th Century.  Peter Lunell was born about 1652 at Havre, of prosperous citizens, who were strong adherents to the reformed faith.  His parents were Nicholas Lunell (1608 – 1664) and Martha Distack.  According to tradition, Peter Lunell’s grandfather, Jean Lunell, a minister, was burnt at the stake, as a martyr in Rouen on February 18 1621.  Coincidentally, it was also at Rouen that Joan of Arc, aged 19, was burnt at the stake for witchcraft on May 30 1431.  Educated in Amsterdam, Holland, Peter Lunell went to London probably about 1674, when many Dutch men made their way to England.  He lodged in the Whitechapel area of the city with a fellow refugee, Anthony Sawier and through the influence of a compatriot, who became Earl of Faversham, he joined the Duke of York’s troop of horse guards.  As a ‘Gentleman of the Guard’, Lunell had pay of 4 shillings a day and saw service through the reigns of Charles II and James II, into that of William III.  He recalled the frozen river Thames in 1684, when he bought a ‘flint bottle covered with red leather gilt from a booth erected on the ice’.  This he carried with him throughout his military service.  He was also present at the coronation of James II.  After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in October 1685, Peter Lunell visited France on a pass signed by Lord Faversham.  There, he saw several of his relatives who were imprisoned as Huguenots.  Some wanted to leave France as his servants.  A female relative pressed him so much concerning her escape that, at last, she offered to travel as his wife.  Lunell said that many persons escaped in disguise.  He saw a man driving a pig as though going to the next market town, when all the time he was trying to escape by means of the pig.  Some even escaped in coffins.  With these recollections, there could be no doubt as to which side Peter Lunell would fight on in any war in which religion was an issue.  His recollections reflect the disaffection amongst Protestants in the guards after King James II’s succession.  As recalled by his grandson, “At first a monk was a curiosity and the guards would say with a kind of surprise, ‘I saw a monk today’.  In a little time, they became common and were taken no notice of”.  Peter Lunell was part of King James’ army at Salisbury, which would oppose the army of the Prince of Orange on the latter’s march to London.  Whilst in their quarters asleep, some persons rapped loudly on their doors.  On awakening, Lunell and his fellow soldiers cried out, “Who’s there?”  “The Prince has landed”, was the reply.  This, in their hearts, they were truly glad of.  With many other Protestants, Peter Lunell deserted the Jacobite army and joined the Prince of Orange on Salisbury plain.  Lunell was at the latter’s coronation and recalled that 1,500 pigs were killed for the banquet.  When King William III came to Ireland, Peter Lunell was in his guards and took part in the famous Battle of the Boyne, where King William defeated the Catholic King James – two rival claimants of the English, Scottish and Irish thrones – on July 1 1690, according to the Old Style Julian calendar.  This is equivalent to July 11 according to the New Style Gregorian calendar, although its celebration is now held on July 12.  The battle and the Williamite victory was a turning point in King James’ unsuccessful attempt to regain the crown.  It ultimately helped to ensure the continuation of the Protestant ascendancy in Ireland. 

In this most famous of Irish battles, Peter Lunell rode amongst the cavalry which started early to cross the Boyne at Slane and attack the left flank of the Jacobite army.  He only knew details of the main battle at Old Bridge, some five miles away, from hear-say and consequently his comments contain inaccuracies.  He carried with him that day in his side pocket, a little flask containing some brandy, with which he refreshed himself greatly during the heat of the action.  This was the flask which he bought on the Thames when it was frozen over.  It was a long and trying day and according to one who was present, ‘exceedingly hot’.  Prior to battle, King William rode amongst his troops and when he came amongst his four Dutch regiments, he exclaimed, “Come on Boys – God shall be King and I’ll be his general”.  He further added to this contingent when pointing at the enemy, facing the French, “Behold your enemies and persecutors”.  Just at the start of battle, an officer rode up to Lunell and entered into chat on what was likely to happen, whereupon the balls began to fly and there was a hissing sound.  Upon this, the officer said, “Sir, this is no place for conversation” and rode off.  Another incident recalled by Lunell related to a man – an idiot who admired the Williamite side – who was well-known and called by the name ‘Bag of Dirt’.  He climbed up a tree and cried out, “Fight on boys; fight on: they run; they run!”  On hearing this, one of the Irish army came near and shot him.  Just as he fell, the unfortunate was heard to say, “I die like a bird in a tree”, and so dropped dead on the ground.  Lunell also saw King William soon after he was wounded and observed that he moved his arm “very stiff”. 

Peter Lunell told another of his friends, Thomas by name, the Quartermaster of Schombergs regiment that, ‘after the action, being fatigued, he alighted from his horse and lay down on a green bank and fell into a sound sleep.  When he awoke, he found his horse’s head on his thigh – the horse, as soon as his master went asleep, lay down beside him’.  Lunell, with his regiment, went to Dublin after the Battle and recalled Dr. King preaching before King William.  However, Lunell took no further part in the war as, soon after the Boyne, he was seized with the small pox and in his own words, ‘it broke out so violently, he quitted the army’.  Peter had saved 300 guineas and in 1691, he married Kiturah Low and took a farm of about 300 acres at Raharah in County Roscommon.  The rent was about £25 per year.  The couple had five children, three daughters and two sons.  Alas, the former all died in infancy.  The two sons were named George and William.  George was born in March 1694 and was named after the Prince of Denmark and William was born May 7 1699 and was named after King William III.  The farm supplied the family’s wants, but so uncertain was the market for farm produce, that it often remained unsold.  William recalled his father saying that there was not a teapot in the house and that there was not a watch in the pocket of any of the family.  Their house was one storey high and thatched.  The family made butter, sowed wheat and had cattle, yet the produce of the farm scarcely paid the rent and maintenance.  Despite the frugal lifestyle, perhaps as a former soldier, Peter Lunell hadn’t the skills to prosper.  When the lease was up, the landlord took the farm and scarcely one half of the 300 guineas remained.  The lack of a teapot was hardly surprising, as the average price of tea at the beginning of Queen Anne’s reign was 16 shillings a pound.  Raharah lies about ten miles north of Athlone and the Lunells were fortunate to find a school for their son William.  George probably died young, as nothing else was heard of him.  The school, in spite of Penal Laws, was kept by Father Keoghy, who taught, amongst other subjects, Latin and Greek.  Father Keoghy used to visit the farm and discuss the wars being waged on the continent with Peter Lunell.  When the pupils visited the school teacher during the holidays, he treated them to bread and milk with brown sugar, which they never forgot.                                              

The school boys had a ‘barring-out’, after the manner of these days.  On the last day of term, they shut the Master out of the school house and on his begging to enter, they made terms with him for additional holidays…  They made everything secure and stood on the defensive…  The Master strove to force the door, but it was without effect.  Presently, the boys heard a noise on the roof, which was soon followed by the appearance of Father Keoghy’s legs breaking through the thatch.  The boys instantly unbarred the door and ran away. 

When William Lunell was older he was sent to a boarding school in Athlone, run by a Mr. Thulus.  William’s son, Peter, wrote, “My grandfather used to walk with my father to school at Athlone and when my father was tired, took him on his back; sometimes he went only part of the way and when he turned to go home, my father would look after him until he disappeared.  My father often told of these walks when his father used to take him to school and used to say, ‘Mind your learning William – ‘tis all my dear child I have to give you’”.

Peter Lunell also spoke Dutch but he seldom used the language.  When he found himself angry, however, he always spoke Dutch.  It answered his purpose and no one was the worse for it.       

The Lunell family cannot have been sad to leave the farming enterprise in Roscommon.  Four of the five children of Peter and Kiturah had died there, and so, the reduced family moved to Dublin, where they took lodgings in Meath Street.  Here, Peter attempted a little business in the mercantile trade, on a joint account with Mr. D’Olier.  They made some shipments to Holland, but Peter Lunell was growing old and, having been in army life, was not suited to business.  He had the consolation, however, of calling on his acquaintances amongst the French Protestants, many of whom settled in Dublin.  Some had served with him at the Boyne while others were refugees that fled from France to avoid persecution.  On the anniversary of King William’s birthday, or the Battle of the Boyne, Peter felt invigorated.  On the eve of November 4, the King’s birthday, he would go to College Green to see the King’s statue.  Once, he saw a halter of hay about the neck.  This affected him and he became depressed.  Peter Lunell died in his sleep on June 3 1720 in the 68th year of his age, and was buried in the French burial ground in Merrion Row, at St. Stephen’s Green.  He was survived by more than twenty years by his wife who lived at Big Butter Lane, now called Bishop Street, Dublin. 

Prior to his father’s death, William Lunell, when about 18 years of age, learned the shop trade in his Aunt Fox’s stuff shop in Francis Street.  While still having his parents to support, he started in business as a draper.  With few resources, William filled up the shop as well as he could, but had not sufficient goods to fill all the shelves.  Hating the empty spaces, he made up packets of straw and paper, akin to his saleable items, and with the showpieces, he filled the upper shelves, so his customers saw a well-stocked shop.  When clients requested upper-shelf items, William Lunell would whisper, “These goods won’t do for you; I would not put them into your hands on any account”.  This ruse often gratified the customers, who bought something else.  William struggled for some years in business.  Those who were able to lend were not willing and those who were not willing to lend, were not able.  Despite his difficulties, William Lunell married Charity Bagnall about 1721/1722.  Their only child, a son, died in infancy, and its mother died shortly afterwards.

The children of Huguenot refugees usually learned their French in the nursery, but because his mother was Irish, William had to take lessons from one Hugo Marment.  William also spoke Danish fluently, having learned it from the crews of Norwegian vessels who used to trade in Dublin.  It is noted that Norway was united with Denmark until 1814.  William Lunell’s motive for learning the language was to induce the Scandinavians to trade with him.  As a further inducement, his shop sign was the ‘King of Denmark’.  This brought most of the Danish traders to his shop to buy presents for their wives. 

Wilson’s Dublin Directory for 1801 contained an advertisement for William Lunell’s business:

William Lunell, at the King of Denmark’s head in Francis St. Dublin removed near Thomas St from ye corner of Plunkett St.  Sells rattins Percians fine Crepes Poplins Bambozines Calimancoes, Camlets and stuffs with several other sorts of goods at reasonable rates.

It is noted that Poplin was amongst the produce sold by William Lunell.  In the silk trade, this new material was a great success.  It was made from the finest wool and pure silk and so woven that the surface is altogether pure silk with the wool giving it firmness.  A fellow Huguenot refugee and army comrade who served at the Boyne, one David Digges La Touche, entered into partnership with a silk merchant.  They became so successful that they set up a shop and small factory in High Street, Dublin.  It is considered possible that they financed a new technique of combining silk and wool to make Poplin. 

La Touche set up a banking business – lending money at reasonable rates to the needy – in conjunction with his mercantile business.  He was so successful that he opened a bank in Castle Street, Dublin, under the name of La Touche and Kane, in 1725.  This was the foundation of the Bank of Ireland. 

As a further enterprising move, William Lunell wrapped the materials he sold to the Scandinavians around their bodies, to conceal the purchases from the Custom House officers.  Lunell didn’t consider this tax evasion, or smuggling, wrong.  Most of the other Dublin traders felt under no obligation to obey the law, which forbade the exportation of their woollen produce.  William Lunell’s business grew to a considerable wholesale trade with the Norwegians, despite the considerable risk of detection by customs.  He refined his evasion of customs by deferring shipping his goods until the vessels were clear of Dublin harbour.  When informed that the ships were clear of Dublin Port, he would put the goods in a hackney coach and drive to Clontarf where, at an appointed time and place, a boat would come from the vessel and take the goods.  With increased prosperity, William Lunell moved business to a better location on the same side of Francis Street, Dublin, at Number 15.  There, he built a three-storey house, with attic, with a gable facing the street, as was a common feature of many Dublin Georgian houses.  This house was still standing in 1807.  In the new house, he carried on business with great success.  In the years from 1733 to 1798, the population of Dublin grew by 50%.  This must have greatly aided those in commerce.  It is noted that the aristocracy maintained Dublin townhouses, as well as their country mansions, until the Acts of Union of 1801.  Traders such as William Lunell availed of the demand for fittings and furnishings in this regard. 

With prosperity, William Lunell married a second wife, Ann Gratten, a daughter of John Gratten – a gentleman of family estate – at Clonmeen, Co. Kildare.  Ann’s sister, Mary, married William Whitmore in 1735 and their daughter Olivia married Arthur Guinness – the founder of Guinness’ brewery – in 1761.  Like his friend David La Touche, William Lunell went into banking with a Mr. Dickenson and they opened their bank on Upper Ormond Street, near Jervis Street, Dublin.  This venture was reported in Faulkner’s Dublin Journal of March 30, 1742.  However, the private banking house of Lunell and Dickenson appears to have had a short life (1742 – 1746), due to the financial panic which was caused by the Scottish Rebellion of 1745.  The firm preserved its business integrity by honouring its debts, as seen from the following advertisements:

Messrs. Lunell and Dickenson being determined to settle immediately with the public, having in their hands a large stock of undeniable good Dublin bills and notes, the greater part of a short date and none exceeding three months over and above what will discharge any demands on them, desire such as have any of their notes by them to bring them either to Messrs. Vareilliers; Hugh White; Ambrose Bancroft; Samuel Horner and Robert Jaffrey, by whom we shall return full value in bills, allowing the discount of the time they have to run.  The printer himself will take the notes of Messrs. Lunell and Dickenson for debts books printing etc.  (Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, October 5 1745)

The same advertisement appeared in succeeding weeks in the month of October in the same paper.  A further advertisement, signed by 47 Dublin merchants, (including William and Hoser Coates) vouched for the defunct bank of Lunell and Dickenson. 

Finally, in 1746, the following advertisement was published: 

The partnership of Messrs. Lunell and Dickenson being now dissolved, they request the public immediately to send in for payment the remainder of their notes still outstanding and any other demands on the company account.  (Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, March 25 1746)

On August 9 1747, John Wesley (1703 – 1791), the noted preacher, sailed up the River Liffey into Dublin, after a 26-hour voyage across the Irish Sea from Holyhead in Wales.  His host was William Lunell, described as a respectable banker and cloth merchant.  Although a Huguenot, Lunell was also a member of the emerging Methodist Society being developed by the Reverend Thomas Williams.  The first Methodist meeting house in Dublin was erected in White Friar Street in 1752, with ‘munificent assistance’ from Mr. Lunell.  In fact, William Lunell contributed £400 to the erection of this church. 

This was the first of 21 visits to Ireland made by John Wesley.  Altogether, he spent six and a half years in Ireland.  William Lunell had been in correspondence with Wesley with a view to obtaining protection and redress for the Methodists of Cork, through the efforts of the Countess of Huntingdon.  The intimate and endearing terms of Lunell’s letter to John Wesley, written on June 27 1748, were described as ‘eloquent to the mutual regard of these two friends’.  It was at 15 Francis Street that John Wesley, in his own words, “first found a home in this strange land”.  John Wesley, Anglican Cleric and Christian Theologian, together with his brother Charles are largely credited with founding the Methodist Movement.  Indeed, Charles Wesley is generally regarded as the greatest hymn writer of all time.  He wrote over 6,000 hymns, including his probable best-known, ‘Hark the Herald Angels Sing’.  John Wesley travelled generally on horseback, preaching two to three times each day.  It is estimated that he travelled some 250,000 miles in this manner, giving away £30,000 and preaching over 40,000 sermons in his long life. 

Ann Lunell (neé Gratten), wife of William, died on August 5 1748 and was buried in the Huguenot burial ground in Merrion Row in Dublin, as was her father-in-law, Peter Lunell.  William and Ann had several children, but only one, Martha, survived.  She was born in 1733 and married Anthony Grayson, a silk manufacturer who lived in Derry.  Indeed, Charles Wesley (1707- 1788) also came to Dublin and stayed with William Lunell, shortly after the death of the latter’s wife Ann.    

William Lunell married his third wife, Rebecca Taylor, before 1759.  They appeared to have moved to Little Cuffe Street and remained there until 1766, when they migrated to Bristol, where they both died: William in 1774 and Rebecca in 1807.  They were both brought back to Dublin for burial and their headstone inscription in the Huguenot Burial Ground at Merrion Row reads:

Rebecca Lunell

Widow of William Lunell Esq.

Departed this life in Bristol

10th March 1807 Aged 81 Years

Her remains were interr’d here

At her own desire next to these

Of her beloved husband

Their second son, George, was born in Dublin in 1761.  He returned to his native city and set up in business as a merchant on the north side.  After living in Capel Street from 1784 to 1805, he moved in 1806 to a house in North George’s Street.  George Lunell was a Director of the Bank of Ireland from 1793 to 1811, the year he died.  He was succeeded in that office by his son, William Peter Lunell Junior, who held the position from 1812 to 1842.  Furthermore, William Peter was Governor of the Bank of Ireland from 1830 to 1832.  He died in 1843, having been predeceased by his wife Robina, who died in 1835.  They had issue of five daughters.  Two of the daughters married, but the name appears to have become extinct in Dublin when the last unmarried daughter died in 1907.  The 1901 National Population Census lists Adeline Lunell, aged 69 and Isabella Lunell, aged 72, both residents at North York Street, Kingstown (now Dun Laoghaire).  They are probably of this family. 

William Peter Lunell, born in 1757, who recorded the narrative of his grand-father Peter and father William, was the eldest son of William and Rebecca.  He was brother of George and he remained in Bristol, living in 1793/1794 in Brunswick Square.  This was then a new and fashionable area of Bristol.  He and two of his sons, George and Samuel, were prominent members of the Guild of Merchant Venturers, which still own and display his portrait.  This is attributed to John King, who painted it in 1828.  William Peter Lunell took an active part in the campaign to abolish slavery, which cannot have been easy in Bristol, a city whose prosperity depended so much on the slave trade.  The decision of Lunell to oppose slavery is perhaps not surprising.  His father, William, was a close friend of the Wesley brothers, John and Charles.  John Wesley was a keen abolitionist and wrote and spoke against the slave trade.  In his own inimitable manner, John Wesley declared, “Liberty is the right of every human creature as soon as he breathes the vital air and no human law can deprive him of that right, which he derives from the law of nature.”   William Peter Lunell was also a friend of William Wilberforce (1759 – 1835), who led the Parliamentary opposition to the slave trade for thirty years.  A bill was successfully passed to abolish the slave trade in 1807. The Bristol Lunells prospered as merchants and ship builders, and lived to be old men, but left no descendants.  The name apparently disappeared in Bristol with the death of Mrs. John Evans Lunell, about 1880. 

William Peter Lunell

This account of the lives of Peter Lunell and his son William, was written by the latter’s son, William Peter Lunell, in 1807.  Peter told of his adventures to William and William Peter recorded his father’s story.  While due allowance is made for inaccuracies, it is nevertheless a fascinating account of life, in his own words, from a turbulent era long gone.          

To bring the story up to the present time, it is necessary to recall the marriage of Ann Gratten of Clonmeen, Co. Kildare and William Lunell.  The Grattens were a well-connected family.  They were related to the Smyths (clerics, merchants and architects); the La Touches (Huguenot bankers); and the Darnleys (speculative builders).  As mentioned earlier, Ann Gratten’s niece Olivia Whitmore married Arthur Guinness (1725 – 1803), the founder of the brewing dynasty.  Olivia Whitmore, a ward of William Lunell, inherited over £1000 from her father, which, I’m sure, didn’t displease Arthur Guinness on their marriage in 1761.  Arthur and Olivia must have thought highly of William Lunell, as they called one of their sons William Lunell Guinness (1779 – 1842).  He subsequently followed his father into the family brewing business.  Another sister of Ann Gratten, Elizabeth, married Jeffrey Jennings, a Dublin merchant.  His shop, like William Lunell’s, was located in Francis Street, Dublin, and sold a similar range of merchandise, including satins, perzians, poplins and damasks.  These families: Gratten; Lunell; Jennings; Whitmore and Guinness all engaged in business in what was then a smaller Dublin city. 

From the marriage of Jeffrey Jennings and Elizabeth Gratten, descending through the families of: Norman; Moore; Adrian (another Huguenot); Bodkin and Robinson, we arrive at the present time.  This Robinson family lived at Newberry Hall, Carbury, Co. Kildare for 100 years until its sale in 2011. This demesne features a Palladian-style house, which was built circa 1760 by Arthur Pomeroy, First Lord Harberton.  Interestingly, the estate contains Trinity Well, the acknowledged source of the River Boyne, and is a place of pilgrimage since early Christian times. 

The Robinson family member who sold Newberry Hall is a cousin, six times removed, of the present day descendants of Arthur Guinness, as are also the Lunell descendents of William and Ann – if any exist.  This is due to their common Gratten heritage.      

It is fitting, then, that this study, which started with Peter Lunell’s participation in the Battle of the Boyne (now commemorated on July 12 each year), should close with another connection to that historic event, the River Boyne’s source at Newberry Hall, Carbury, Co. Kildare.     

Martyr; refugee; soldier; farmer; draper; banker; merchant and social reformer are categories which, in succeeding generations, defined this most interesting family: The Lunells.

I am particularly indebted to Richard Robinson, formally of Newberry Hall, Carbury, for his encouragement and assistance in researching this article.

My thanks, also, to my daughter June for her word-processing skills and patience in the production of this paper. 


  6. The Huguenots in Ireland, Published by the Irish section of the Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  7. The French Church, St. Paul’s Church, Portarlington, 1696 – 1996, ISBN 095282180X
  8. The Huguenot Settlements in Ireland, G.L. Lee, Royal Irish Academy, Ref 62-B-24
  9. The Story of Peter Lunell, A Huguenot Refugee and His Son William, Thomas Peter Le Fanu, C.B., 1930, Spottiswoode, Ballintyre & Co. National Archive M469-3
  10. Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London, Vol. XIV, No. 1, Page 20
  11. Lunell Family Tree, Ref M469-3, National Archive
  12. Ancestry, COR/th/recd/huguenotto1999_09/093844224
  13. National Census, 1901, Lunell, York Street, Kingstown
  14. Reverend Luke Tyerman, The Life & Times of the Reverend John Wesley, Vol. II, 1998, Wesleyan Heritage Publication
  15. Wesley Historical Society, Page 73-76
  16. John Wesley letters, Arminian Magazine, 1978, Page 532
  17. Magnus Mauske, Municipal Archives of Tronaheim, Norway
  18. Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, March 30 1742
  19. Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, July 7 1744
  20. Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, March 25 1745
  21. Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, October 5 1745
  22. National Archive Manuscript Ref M469-4
  23. Frederick Mullally, The Silver Salver, Royal Irish Academy, Ref 64/0/3
  24. Wilson’s Dublin Directory, 1801. 
  25. Mary Campion, An Old Dublin Industry – Poplin, Dublin Historical Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 2-15
  26. M.J.S. Egan and R.M. Flatman, Memorials of the Dead, Dublin City and County, No. 2, Irish Genealogical Research Society, 1989, Page 94.


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