James Robinson M. Phil.
This study concerns the Celbridge branch of the Independent Nationalist League and their candidate, James L. Carew M.P. in the North Kildare Constituency Westminster General Election of 1895. The activities of this branch of the Celbridge Parnellites, as they were called, are referenced through the newspaper reports of the Leinster Leader, the Nationalist newspaper for Co. Kildare. It was owned and edited by James L. Carew M.P., the Parnellite candidate in this election.
Charles Stewart Parnell (1845 – 1891) was first elected a Westminster Member of Parliament for the Meath constituency in 1875. In 1879 he was elected President of the National League. The objects of the League were: fair rent; fixed tenure and free sale. Its long term aim was that tenants would own the land. Parnell always believed that solving the land question was the first step on the road to Home Rule. In 1886, the Irish Party, with Parnell as leader, returned 85 seats to Westminster and held the balance of power.
1889 marked the high point of Parnell’s popularity. However, a divorce case in1890, in which Parnell was cited for adultery with Mrs. Katherine O’Shea, resulted in bitter controversy in Nationalist Ireland. The Irish Party split with the anti-Parnellites having 44 votes to the Parnellites’ 27. This schism dominated national politics in the ensuing years.
A January 1895 meeting of the Celbridge Parnellites reported a good attendance, which included its President, Mr. Michael O’Brien, Arthur O’Connor P.L.G., Treasurer, Matthew Lee, Mrs. Gogarty, Patrick Sheridan, J. Groudan, Patrick Coughlan, C. McDonnell, W. Gogarty and George Murray.
The President made scathing references to the Irish Nationalist Federation, or anti-Parnellites, as, “Miserable squabbling Whigs”. It is unclear why they were called Whigs. The Whigs, along with the Tories, were the main political forces in Britain from the late 17th to the 20th Century. In the late 1800s, most Whigs joined the Liberal Party and were instrumental in its formation.
It was decided to invite Mr. J.L. Carew to address the branch meeting, where it was said he was, “seen to receive from the sturdy nationalists of Celbridge, a thorough and most whole-hearted welcome”.
The Annual General Meeting of the Celbridge branch was held on St. Patrick’s Day 1895 and amongst the speakers were Dr. Kenny M.P. and Mr. James L. Carew. In a stirring speech, Carew said:
“When you first elected me as your elected representative under the leadership of Mr. Parnell, (applause), the chief, in fact the one plank of our platform is complete and absolute independence of every English party (hear, hear). That platform, I maintain today, as strongly as I did then (more power).”
A rousing article in the Leinster Leader issue of 23 March 1895 reported on a St. Patrick’s Day rally of the Parnellite Nationalists under the heading, “Fides et Patria”.
“Parnellism, we were told a hundred times in the last two years, after the events of Committee Room 15, is dead and buried. Who will say now, after the events of the last week, that Parnellism or Independent Nationalism is anything but the one vital and really active force in Irish political life?”
There was an interesting report under the heading, “Meath Notes” in the 27 April issue of the Leinster Leader. It noted that Most Reverend Dr. Nulty (R.C. Bishop of Meath) had give instructions to the clergy to have offerings over the dead. In compliance with this instruction, the Reverend N. Woods C.C. gave 10S to Mr. Patrick O’Rourke’s funeral in Ballyboggan and that the other clergy gave in proportion to their means.
Dr. Nulty was stridently anti-Parnellite and supported the National Federation candidates. On the eve of the 1892 General Election, the Bishop exclaimed that, “No Parnellite could remain a Catholic”. The South-Meath constituency, which was won by the Federalists, was successfully appealed by the Parnellites and the result was annulled because of, “undue clerical interferences”. The federalists won the re-run of the election, however.
The writer has found anecdotal evidence of non-compliance with the practice of funeral offerings by Parnellite families. Dr. Nulty’s advocacy of the practice confirms this.
In one case, the family of a woman who died on 31 July 1941 and who opposed the payment of offerings, offered to pay a sum of money equal, if not more, than that expected if offerings were paid. The offer was rejected and the deceased was refused removal to the local R.C. church in Derrinturn. She was buried directly from her home to Carrig Cemetery. The burial rituals were conducted by a family priest as the local clergy refused to officiate.
Dunboyne (Co. Meath), was a particularly strong Parnellite Parish. During the ‘split’, the local parish priest preached a strong sermon against Parnell. A majority of local people objected by resolving not to pay funeral offerings. The Meath diocese was the last to practise funeral offering payments and the practice ceased in the late 1970s.
A humorous and nearly tragic consequence of Mr. O’Rourke’s funeral alluded to the over-indulgence of one of the mourners, who ate and drank to excess. He could not consequently be removed from the graveyard for some time. A stomach pump had to be employed to relieve him! The report added that the mourner was one who had made himself notorious at the Meath election by, “roaring like a mad bull”, in celebration of the anti-Parnellite victory. It is wise to remind him, the newspaper reported, that gluttony is one of the seven deadly sins.
Not unusually, the report ended by belittling the Whig parliamentary fund collection which was made at Clonard R.C. church. The amount was, “miserably small – only £4-10-4 altogether”.
The divisive nature of politics at this time, is evidenced from a report in the June issue of the Leinster Leader. Under the heading, “Desecration of a Grave in Kilshanroe”, it reported that a good deal of indignation had been aroused in the Clonkeerin district owing to the desecration of the grave of Mr. James Boylan. A local had, “gratified his malice” against the dead and “insulted the living” by this deed. The report thundered, “odious and detestable is the wretch who would stoop to such extremes of personal spleen”. It continued that the perpetrator had held his head high in the parish and cryptically noted that he, “enjoys a deal of favour in quarters from which stern condemnation of such crimes should be expected”. This is a thinly-veiled reference to local clergy supporting the outrage.
Comparison was also made in this article to the desecration of a family vault in Co. Cork in May 1895. The burial vault of the Colthurst family, from Blarney, was desecrated by soldiers of the 10th Royal Hussars Regiment of the British Army.
The 6 July issue of the Leinster Leader published the following election address:
To the Electors
Men of North Kildare
The collapse of the Liberal Government has given you the opportunity of choosing a member to represent you in the imperial parliament, and at the request of the Independent Nationalists of this division, I offer myself as a Candidate for your suffrages.
As you know, my political principles, I am now what I was in1885 when you first elected me by an enormous majority to represent you at Westminster; what I was when you re-elected me in 1886; what I was in 1892 when, by a small majority, you rejected me,
An INDEPENDENT NATIONALIST
And an independent nationalist
I will remain
I am Fellow Countrymen
Your Faithful Servant
JAMES L CAREW
Naas 5th July 1895
This issue of the Leinster Leader contained a report on the neighbouring constituency of Queen’s County (now Laois). The report stated that Mr. Arthur O’Connor M.P. had visited Maryborough (now Portlaoise). It opined that Mr. O’Connor had visited the area to, “feel his way”, as it were, with a view to being elected a candidate for one of the county divisions. This report on Whig Politics disparaged their activities, stating that Mr. O’Connor was an “ardent Healyite”, and there being a following for the redoubtable Tim (Healy) amongst the Feds. in Maryborough, hoped to represent them in the future. It concluded mischievously that the sitting federalist, a Dr. M.A. McDonnell, must make way for the, “redoubtable Lieutenant, ‘The Burly Arthur’”.
The 13 July issue of the Leinster Leader carried a report headed, “Canvassing in Celbridge”. It stated that Mr. Carew had started canvassing of the electors in the district. He was, it said, warmly received for his, “Non-swerving fidelity to the great Parnell and the eternal principles of Truth and Justice”.
The 20 July issue of the paper noted that the nominations for the North Kildare constituency were accepted by the Kildare High Sheriff, Mr. Thomas Greene .L.LB. The Federation candidate, Mr. Engledow, was accompanied by Fr. Morrin, Fr. Cullen and others.
Mr. James L. Carew, the Nationalist Candidate, was attended by a host of supporters. Seven nomination papers were handed in on Carew’s behalf. He relied on the first – proposed by Mr. Laurence Malone of Broguestown and seconded by Mr. William Murphy of Carbury. The fifth nomination paper was proposed by Mr. Arthur O’Connor, of Loughlinstown. This was seconded by Mr. Nicholas Fitzsimons, Ballscott. Asserting nominations included: Patrick Whelan, Donaghcomper; Arthur Ryan, Lough Lister; Charles Saunders, Stacumney; Thomas Coleman, Celbridge; Michael Dignan, Killadoon; Myles Mulally, Ardross; Laurence Mullen, Simmondstown and A.W. Archer, Celbridge.
The Freemans Journal issue of 22 July 1895 reported that polling took place that day in seven polling stations in North Kildare. As this newspaper supported the anti-Parnellite Nationalist cause, it is not surprising that it said that the, “Tory voters turned out to support the Redmondite candidate (J.L. Carew)”. It scornfully opined that the Redmondites were relying on their alliance with the, “Landlords and their understrappers to defeat the Nationalists of North Kildare”. It concluded that, should Mr. Engledow be successful, “It will be the most crushing blow yet delivered to the unholy alliance”.
The election result was reported in the Leinster Leader issue of 27 July 1895. It stated that Kildare had returned two anti-Parnellite M.P.s. This prompted the paper to say that Kildare had, “Resorted to Whiggery, due to the constant ceaseless intimidation of the clergy”. With only 5,007 eligible voters in the constituency, Charles Engledow, the Irish Nationalist Federation or Federalist candidate, received 1,944 votes, while his rival, James L. Carew, of the Irish Party, polled 1,712 votes. Thus, the margin of victory was 233 votes.
The 3 August issue of the Leinster Leader railed against the loss of Kildare to the Federalists. “The record of Kildare, has been blotted by the name of Engledow. Kildare, the land of Lord Edward and Wolfe Tone, the saviour of the National Cause in danger and distress…has been betrayed and dishonoured by her enemies within”. The article thunderously concluded, “Oh! Name him not – an unknown adventurer, a political tramp, here today and away tomorrow, a tool who, when he has served the purpose of his employers, will be set aside without ceremony”.
The 20 July Leinster Leader issue reported that there were 979 voters in the Celbridge area and that the valid pole was 714 votes. It estimated that the Parnellites had a majority of 2 to 1. Mr. Patterson and the Messrs. Gogarty (2), O’Brien and O’Neill worked, “Might and main”, for Mr. Carew. The report concluded ruefully that Mr. Carew’s election, if it depended on Celbridge alone, would have been certain.
However, the Parnellite cause did have a victory in the neighbouring constituency of South Meath, where Mr. John Howard Parnell (a brother of Charles Stewart Parnell) was victorious. The Leinster Leader issue of 27 July 1895 reported on a party that was held to celebrate this win in Kildangan House, Ballinabracky, the residence of Mr. T. M. Carew (brother of J.L. Carew). It stated that the spacious coach house was speedily cleared of its contents and converted into a dancing room. At nightfall, the house was illuminated and shortly thereafter, the local Parnellites assembled. Dancing was commenced and continued until four o’clock in the morning. In the intervals, there was singing and recitations. Mr. Robert Graham exacted, “The greatest enthusiasm by his spirited rendering of the well-known song, Charles Stewart Parnell”. The same performer also showed himself, “A master of the comic, as of the serious, by his humorous rendering of Paddy Don’t Care. John Logan sang, There Stood on a Beach with much feeling, while Mr. Garrett Monaghan created infinite amusement by his inimitable imitations of well-known people in the neighbourhood. Andrew Moore, Miss Geoghegan, Miss Cooney and Miss Smith alternately played the melodeon, which appeared to have super-ceded the fiddle and the flute and is now the most popular musical instrument in the district. A more agreeable or happier reunion could not be imagined…it concluded that, “The flowing tide is now with the new and by the time the next election comes round, the Dead Chief’s memory will be vindicated”.
The 12 October 1895 Leinster Leader issue reported on the attendance at the Parnell anniversary commemoration. Huge numbers from throughout Co. Kildare were listed in attendance for each I.N.L. branch. The Celbridge members listed were: Micheal O’Brien, President; Nicholas Fitzsimons, V.P.; Matthew Gogarty, A.W. Archer, Daniel O’Neill, Stacumney House; W. Gogarty, Hon. Sec.; Pat Kirwan, George Murray, L. Kirwan, M. Gogarty, Jnr., Pat Behan, W.P. Gogarty, L. Fitzsimons, P. Young and C.F. Fitzsimons.
It is on interest to note that a large deputation from the Celbridge branch of the Labour Union also attended, amongst whom were: C. McDonald, Secretary, P. Kirwan, C. Grogan, P. McCann, M. McCann, J. Brazil, N. J. Kelly, P. Brazil, J. Farrell, J. Behan, E. Quinn, J. Mulligan, P.P. Carroll, J. Hanley, L. Ward, C.M. McDermot, J. Cummins, D. McMahon, W. Masterson, C. Cushion, H. Malone, J. Gerathy, H. Farrelly, T. Prendergast, C. Fitzsimons, W. Murphy, C. Murphy, J. McCann, W. Kenny, J. Byrne, P.L.G. and P. Coglan. This group also sent, “A beautiful wreath, heart-shaped, artistically executed by Miss Hayes of Celbridge”.
The 2 November issue of the Leinster Leader, 1895, contained an obituary to Mr. James Robinson, Ballyboggan, who died in his 90th year. He was described as one of the few remaining links which connect the present to the past, which has been broken.
An ardent Parnellite, the deceased was born in 1806 and his life, therefore, almost spanned the 19th Century. James Robinson was nine years of age in 1815 when the Battle of Waterloo took place, and must have had recognition of the fact that Arthur Wellesley, the victorious military leader of that momentous conflict, was the grandson of Richard Colley from nearby Carbury. The deceased saw Catholic Emancipation won in 1829. He worked with Daniel O’Connell for repeal of the Union and with three of his brothers, stood with the “Liberator” of the platform of the great meeting at Tara. James Robinson, together with his father Garrett Robinson, each gave one guinea to the Daniel O’Connell tribute in 1843. He also witnessed the rise and fall of the young Ireland movement, the Fenian Rising of 1867, and worked, “Heart and soul with the dead chief”, remaining loyal to him after the great betrayal of 1890. Interestingly, it reported that James Robinson took the chair at a great meeting in Clonard in 1865 for the release of Michael Davitt and his fellow political prisoners, which over 14,000 attended. The obituary went on to refer to an unsavoury incident. What was described as a “Notorious rabble from Kinnegad” assembled outside the deceased’s home and indulged in every form of insult towards him. Aged 87 at the time, James Robinson mistook the demonstration for one of welcome. When the real nature of the gathering was explained to him, the old man observed, “We must forgive them for they know not what they do”. The fulsome obituary concluded with a list of family mourners, along with some 125 people, in descending order of social order, who attended the funeral.
The 22 October 1895 issue of the Irish Daily Independent contained this death notice. It read:
Robinson, on October 22 1895 at his residence, Ballyboggan, Co. Meath.
James Robinson, aged 90 years R.I.P.
At 2.00pm tomorrow (Thurs) for Clonard.
There is no headstone in Clonard cemetery showing this burial, however, a broken headstone stump remains in the Gaffney section of the graveyard. James Robinson’s wife’s family, Kate Gaffney, are buried here. It is possible that it was desecrated, as was the Boylan grave in Kilshanroe, described earlier in this study. The obituary notice for Garrett Robinson, brother of James, who died in 1844, reads:
Robinson, At His Residence, Boyne Hill, Co. Kildare. Garrett Robinson, aged 70 years R.I.P. Funeral at 2pm today, Friday
Curiously, the burial place is not named. As his death occurred in 1884, long before the Parnellite Split, when animosities arose, it is a mystery why no place of burial was mentioned.
This elegant tribute to James Robinson was probably written by the owner/Editor of the Leinster Leader, James L. Carew. He was a nephew of the deceased and therefore had intimate knowledge of his political life. Indeed, this may have influenced and inspired Carew to enter political life. Again, the bitter tensions between opposing nationalist factions were evident in this report.
The 28 December 1895 issue of the Leinster Leader reported on a presentation to James L Carew by the ladies of the Celbridge Independent Nationalist League. A beautifully illustrated address was presented to Mr. Carew as a memento of his service to the Irish Cause. Amongst those present were Mrs. William Gogarty, Mrs. Arthur O’Connor, Mrs. M. O’Brien, Miss Kate Hayes, Miss M. Hayes, Mrs. Keegan, Mrs. L Cribben, Miss Fitzgerald, Miss O’Neill, Mrs. Fitzsimons, Miss Masterson, Mrs. M Gogarty, Mrs. Fitzsimons, Mrs. Fitzgerald, Mrs. Coleman, Mrs. L Mulee, Mrs. R. Travers, Mrs. E Quinn, Miss Saul, Miss Lumley and Miss Carroll. Also present were: M. O’Brien, President, I.N.L., S. Hayes, W. Gogarty, Hon. Sec., I.N.L., Edward Quinn, M. Gogarty, Arthur O’Connor, Nicholas Fitzsimons, D. O’Neill and others.
Mrs. W. Gogarty and Miss N. Hayes, Hon. Sec. of the Presentation Committee read the address.
To J.L. Carew Esq.
On the part of the women of Celbridge, in moments of our bitter disappointment, we beg to give expression to the sorrow with which our hearts are filled at the loss that we, that Kildare, that Ireland, has suffered by your defeat at the poll on Saturday 20th July. Though the mean arts of low minds have been successful against you for the present, we are convinced that no act, however vicious, can raise a cloud dense enough to obscure the lustre of your reputation. Your Culture, Courtesy and Amiability, your countless services to Ireland, your struggles and sufferings in her cause, your unwavering fidelity to the great Chief and your devotion to the noble principles of Truth, Justice and Liberty have ensured you the affection of all that is good and true in Kildare. The words of the poet find no confirmation amongst us. “Inspired are her sons till they learn to betray”. We trust that when our people recover from what is but a temporary aberration, that you will once again be the trusted representative of our independent and intelligent Kildare.
On Behalf of the Committee
|Mrs. Arthur O’Connor||Mrs. Fitzgerald||Miss Saul|
|Mrs. Paul O’Neill||Mrs. Coleman||Mrs. E. Quinn|
|Mrs. Fitzsimons||Mrs. Cribben||Mrs. Lumley|
|Mrs. M. Gogarty||Mrs. L. Mullen||Miss M. Lumley|
|Mrs. Fitzsimons||Miss Masterson||Miss Carroll|
|Mrs. R. Travers|
|Mrs. Michael O’Brien, Pres.|
|Mrs. William Gogarty, Vice Pres.|
|Miss K. Hayes, Treas.|
Mrs. M. Hughes Hon. Sec.
The address, which is illustrated with views of Newbridge and Old Connell, contains a photograph of Mr. Carew and is embellished with ivy leaves, the symbol of Parnellism. To this day, ivy leaves are worn by those attending the annual Parnell commemoration in Glasnevin Cemetery. The artist is not stated, but may possibly be the ‘Miss Hayes’ who executed the Celbridge Labour Union wreath presented at the annual Parnell commemoration. In reply, Mr. Carew thanked the gathering for the presentation. He said he always received a warm and spontaneous welcome in Celbridge and that there was no part of Ireland where loyalty to the chief and devotion to his principles were stronger.
Accessing this address has prompted this study of the turbulent political events some 124 year later.
Two of the most prominent members of the Celbridge Independent Nationalist League branch were Arthur O’Connor and his second wife Elizabeth, (née Saul) from Elm Hall, Loughlinstown, Celbridge. Their second son, Arthur (Art) O’Connor (1885 – 1950) was a politician, lawyer and judge. He was elected a Sinn Fein T.D. for South Kildare in the 1918 General Election. He opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty and took the republican side as a consequence. In March 1926, O’Connor became President of the Republic when Eamon De Valera resigned. Arthur O’Connor resigned this position in 1927.
James L. Carew was born 23 April 1853. He was the youngest son of Laurence Carew of Kildangan, Ballinabracky, Co. Meath and Ann, only daughter of Garrett Robinson of Kilrainey, Co. Kildare. Educated at Clongowes Wood College, he attended Trinity College Dublin and took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1873.
In 1874, Carew studied at the Middle Temple and in 1878, was called to the English Bar. He practiced in Equity Law until he entered politics by contesting the General Election of 1885. Carew won a seat for the Nationalists for North Kildare in this contest. In the same year, he bought the Leinster Leader, the local Nationalist paper. During this Westminster term, he became a whip of the Irish Party and as such, was a close confidante of C.S. Parnell and William Ewart Gladstone (1809 – 1898) regarding the Home Rule discussions. In the 1886 General Election, Carew was returned unopposed and with Mr. J.J. Clancy M.P., co-directed the work of the Irish Press Agency – an organisation established to educate English opinion on Home Rule for Ireland. James L. Carew took the Parnellite side following the Nationalist Party split in 1890 and staunchly supported the Parnellite cause for the rest of his life. Following the split, the anti-Parnellite side won 71 seats to the Parnellite’s 9 seats in the General Election of 1892. Carew was a victim of this political landslide. In 1895, he was again defeated in North Kildare, this time by C.S. Engledow. In the following year, 1896, following the resignation of Dr. Kenny, Carew succeeded him in the Dublin College Green division. In 1900, after a bitter contest, Carew was defeated by Mr. Joseph Nenetti, an employee of the Freeman’s Journal, the anti-Parnellite newspaper. In the same year, however, James L. Carew was returned for the South Meath division. He was not accepted as a member of the United Irish Party, but sat as an Independent Nationalist, pursuing an independent policy, both in his newspaper (Leinster Leader) and in the House of Commons.
James L. Carew was jailed during his political career. Firstly, in 1888, for a speech he gave regarding the Land War. He was also arrested when he spoke in favour of the Liberal candidate at an election in Scotland.
When out of Parliamentary politics, Carew worked for the Parnellite cause while lobbying in America.
In January 1903, James L. Carew was appointed High Sheriff of Co. Kildare. He died suddenly on 30 August in that year while on holiday with his wife Helen and stepson, Sir Coleridge Kennard, in Switzerland. The cause of death was apoplexy. He was 50 years of age. Carew is buried with his parents in Castlejordan Cemetery, Co. Meath. His tombstone bears the inscription:
Laurence Carew Obit. 20th August 1870 aged 80 years. Ann Carew Obit. 18th July 1866 aged 73 years. James Laurence Carew, youngest surviving son of Laurence Carew, who died on 30th August 1903.
James L. Carew married Helen Kennard and their wedding is recorded in the 4 June 1896 issue of the Dundee Advertiser as follows:
Mr. James Laurence Carew M.P. was married on Tuesday at St. Mary’s, Chelsea to Mrs. Helen Coleridge Kennard. The reverend Mark Kelly officiated. The only persons present were Mr. And Mrs. W. Redmond and Miss Redmond, daughter of Mr. John Redmond M.P. Mr. Carew has received a very handsome piece of old silver plate as a wedding gift from his fellow Parnellite members.
After her husband’s death, and having been twice widowed, Helen Carew retired to live in a suite in Claridge’s Hotel, London. She was an artist who retained a life-long appreciation and affection for Oscar Wilde (1854 – 1900). Wilde inscribed her copy of The Happy Prince with the words, “To the happy princess from the unhappy prince. With the devotion of the author, Oscar Wilde”. Helen Carew paid anonymously for the sculpted Epstein Monument which adorns Wilde’s grave in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris. It cost £2000.00. The inscription on the controversial monument bears an extract from Wilde’s The Ballad of Reading Gaol.
And alien tears will fill for him
Pity’s long broken urn
For his mourners will be outcast men
And outcasts always mourn
This tomb, the work of Jacob Epstein, was given by a lady as a memorial of her admiration of the poet.
It is of interest to note that Oscar Wilde said of Parnell, “The Greatest men fail – or seem to have failed”. It is ironic to note that James L. Carew and his wife Helen wholeheartedly supported great men who were brought down by sexual scandal. Carew chose to tread the thorny path of Irish political life. In short, “With pen and purse”, James L. Carew supported the cause of Charles Stewart Parnell. As one newspaper obituary put it, “In a time that tried the stuff that men are made of, J.L. Carew played one man’s part – and something more”.
When Mrs. Elizabeth O’Kelly died, aged 93, in December 2016, her entire estate valued at €30 million was left to five charities. This made national news. She was the largest shareholder in the Leinster Leader and when the newspaper group was sold in 2005, she made this huge profit. By contrast, Helen Carew sold the Leinster Leader following her husband’s death in 1903 for £5,000.00!
James Robinson, The Robinsons of North Kildare – 300 Years of Family History, McRobin Publications. 1997 ISBN 0 95301150
Katherine O’Shea (Mrs. Charles Stewart Parnell), Charles Stewart Parnell, His Love Story and Political Life, Vol II, Cassell and Company Ltd, London, Toronto and Melbourne. 1914.
- Mongtomery Hyde, Oscar Wilde, Eyre Methuen, London. 1976.
James Robinson. James Laurence Carew M.P. (1853 – 1903). Irish Family History Society Journal, Vol. 19, 2003
James Robinson. Oscar Wilde’s Friend and Benefactor, Helen Carew (c 1856 – 1928), Irish Family History Society Journal. Vol. 21 2004
The Leinster Leader, 20 January, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 16 March, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 23 March, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 27 April, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 1 June, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 6 July, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 13 July, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 20 July, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 27 July, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 3 August, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 12 October, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 2 November, 1895
The Leinster Leader, 28 November, 1895
The Freeman’s Journal, 25 March 1884
The Freeman’s Journal, 22 July 1895
The Dundee Advertiser, 4 June 1896
The Dublin Weekly Register, 16 December 1843
My sincere thanks to Stan Hickey and James Durney for their assistance in compiling this study. My thanks also to my daughter June for her word processing skills and patience!